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tv   Book TV  CSPAN  May 12, 2013 10:00pm-10:31pm EDT

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book tv at stanford university to talk about his book, golden holocaust on the history of the tobacco industry and the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes. this is part of the book tv college series and is a little under half an hour. ..
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>> in which case it begins ince stayed in the 17th century with people in state rolling tobacco scrap into old newspapers and it doesn't do much until the 19th century when in the middle east to run out of pipe tobacco they start rolling tobacco with old ammunition and start to
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smoke that but made the 19th century phenomenon is going really big in the 1850's and '60s and explodes with the mechanized rolling of tobacco instead of rolling cigarettes they could roll 500 per day suddenly they could roll 100,000 per day. and as a result of a get this program to dispose of the massive surplus of cigarettes in such an enormous quantity the price drops dramatically tobacco goes from a luxury to a common ordinary consumer goods. with the mass marketing finishing the job. >> how many people smoke today? >> 1.5 billion out of
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7,000,001 negative billion. the chinese are the biggest smokers about 24 trillion cigarettes every year. they smoke over 40 percent of the world's cigarettes. in the united states we only have 350 billion every year that is down from the peak of 1982 which was 630 billion. >> host: what percentage smoke? >> one / five. .-- it is lower in areas of california but higher in the port areas but tobacco tobacco, especially cigarettes has become something that for people do much more than rich people that is the hierarchy of 100 years ago. >> when did cigarette smoking peak? >> with a percentage who was
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in the 1960's and 70's but depending on which age group, the peak for teenagers was not until 1997. also different peaks according to what time and history with per-capita consumption the total production of 1997. >> host: at what point* were cigarettes talked about being dangerous? >> it goes back hundreds of years. in the first cancers are identified in the 18th century and the visible areas of the mouth, tongue mouth, tongue, a throat are already showing cancer in
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the 18th century and throat cancer becomes more common and president grant when he died it is situated to his fondness of cigars but the real evidence that cigarettes are calling masses of people just in the united states not until the of forties and fifties the strong evidence comes from germany to have this strong anti-cancer movement and hitler hated cigarettes with the struggle within the not tea party for cigarettes with their also produced scions with epidemiology's showing smokers were more likely to die of cancer especially throat cancer. then the gravity shifted over the 1950's there were several types of research to show animal experiments from
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the distracted smoke in the healthy people dying from auto accidents that the lungs already had precancerous tumors and smokers are much more likely to get lung cancer and in to find carcinogens in the smoke and even then with the carbon monoxide with the hydrocarbons known to be killing workers that the petro chemical pat -- plants found in the '50s. that was a major cause of lung cancer than heart disease. >> for all chemicals contained in the nicotine? is that the burning? >> mostly but the heavy metal that causes cancer
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regardless of whether it burns or not, the arsenic in to be in the the radioactive component and it is the main way they were exposed to radioactive isotopes. the average smoker will get the equivalent of hundreds of just x-rays per year just from smoking which is from the pesticide rather the fertilizer put on tobacco to put super phosphate fertilizers around the plant and the lead to polonium the same poison that their russian spy in london was killed that is present in cigarette smoke and that was already discovered in the '60s. >> host: what do cigarettes have to do with the marshall plan? >> we think of the marshall plan as an effort to rebuild
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europe but what most people don't know for every $2 of food spent -- sent in to do was $1 of tobacco. the marshall plan could be seen as an effort to get europeans addicted to the inhale tobacco so it was the senator of the father of robertson that actually propose that to the council planning how the marshall plan funds would be spent. even though the french and the europeans have not listed tobacco is what they wanted of the plan it was included by the southern senators in order to promote the sale of european tobacco abroad. >> professor robert proctor you have some ads here is
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the lucky strikes at do you inhale? >> people don't realize prior to cigarettes especially with tyrtaeus -- turkish tobacco it was not inhaled and almost no long cancer prior to 1900 but only 142 cases of lung cancer known worldwide because tobacco smoke was not in pale but just in the united states alone we have 150,000 lung cancer deaths per year by far the most important cancer. these lung cancer epidemics her almost entirely the result of the making of cigarette's design to be inhaled that is why i consider the cigarette not to be inherently dangerous but dangerous by design.
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it is designed to be addictive why they keep nicotine and manipulated levels, designed to be inhalable and that is because of the low ph of the smoke but that creates the lung cancer so it is not inherently dangerous but it is by design. >> host: are dangerous -- cigarettes were dangerous with a filter? >> they make them slightly more dangerous although they have the same hazard. for a couple of reasons they are more dangerous. the filter reduces the size of the particles of smoke so that makes them smaller and inhale more deeply into the lungs that makes them harder to retreat so they are little more dangerous reassure o
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think they're smoking a safer product so instead they shift to the filter thinking it offers protection but the filters are not ev and real filters but more of the hourglass or a speed bump prevent scars from passing. it is a misnomer from the beginning and does not filter in reno from a secret document of the industry filtration isn't a possibility but one of the main companies that used to go with the filter fraud is the american tobacco company. they've refused to go along the way the other companies did then they went out of
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business and refuse to make a product that was fraudulent. >> when did you get interested? >> a couple of different forces of might grandparents three at a ford died from smoking emphysema, a cancer, heart disease. early on my parents were already aware were aware of the useless product. that made an impression but professionally i was involved teaching biology in 1970 with others and we looked at the social causes what do we die from? ninety and century diane chow birth or infectious diseases. we don't die of those so much but from chronic diseases from pollutants and
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tobacco it causes one-third of all cancers that was of a guerrilla in the room as he looked at various causes of disease and the most easily preventable cause of death in the modern world 440,000 deaths in the united states every year and is completely preventable we just allow it as if it is chewing gum so i started to write more intensively but to find out how we came into this world with the perfect engine of addiction is allowed to be sold to be responsible for so much death and suffering and we do so much about is inaccurate teaching at harvard in the '70s. were they smoking in the>>heyer.
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i had a professor coming to give a seminar in a closed room and he was smoking a cigarette nonstop that is how ubiquitous it is for everyone say everybody knew it was bad for you but they were smoking everywhere, a doctor's, they recommended to it -- to the patients patients, and our administrative assistant was advised in 1962 to take up smoking so it would ease the delivery even now we have 400,000 babies born every year in the united states to mothers who smoke throughout the pregnancy. there is a myth that no one smokes although it is reserved for the pork the black and the stupid. >> host: when did reynolds say that? >> in a photo shoot with the winston man in the 1980's.
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a racist comment. that also project scum to sell to gays and the holess in the san francisco area subculture urban marketing. project scum and what company treats customers that way and how most customers wish to they didn't start. most wish they did not smoke and this is something that is not known one of the biggest myths that we have but not like alcohol only five or 10 percent who are addicted baby 90 percent of people who smoke are addicted. from a pure libertarian calculus that is why i call for abolition even smokers don't like the fact they smoke it is an unusual smoker who is happy about it
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>> the chances of the average smoker getting cancer? >> one out of a. half of every one his note should -- will die from the habit in each cigarette takes about seven minutes from your life. people have a lot of myths that i will smoke until i get sick that i will stop that than the damages done it is not like you went driving drunk if you make it home than that can kill you but every cigarette is like a nail in your coffin. there is a chronic continuous hazard that can be detected in every tissue of the body. there is no consumer product like that and kills even as used as directed. >> there is no project like
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this in the modern world. >> what do you seeing or hearing the as opposed to tanner 20 year-ago -- 10 or 20 years ago? >> it is different from five or 10% of course, there also has been the of hookah pipes from the middle eastern residents. >> host: that comes and goes. >> most do not even know it is tobacco they will save it took a bite isn't bad but what do you think is a net? they say just hookah they don't know if it is tobacco. so that is aquantive book to say you thank you know tobacco you don't know scott. people don't know about radioactivity a lot of
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they don't know there are six and did eat the ingredients added to tobacco -- 680 ingredients and will get to the freebase tobacco to get the extra kick like crack nicotine to exotics like rows of was akia or bromide which is a bronco dilator order secretion from the a note land of these siberian beaver for flavor. there is a witch's brew that is added that it is a saying cigarettes are no more tobacco wrapped in paper they and "the new york
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times" is a pine tree is one of the most carefully designed small objects that is tens of billions of dollars going into the engineering that is from secret documents within the industry. >> host: have the anti-smoking laws made a difference? >> a huge difference but they have given the smokers an opportunity to get the monkey off their back. it is also to normalize the have it so looking at mike wallace interviews from the 1950's where philip morris -- phil morris was a star there would zoom in on the cigarette with ahead of the kkk or the communist party but he also does a fascinating interview with the pioneer of birth control and after this interview she says, 80 years old, i have
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never been a smoker but i will take up smoking and i will smoke philip morris cigarettes. that just shows how all basically bought and sold people were at this time for another thing is there is virtually no part of american culture that is smoke-free. and people from my own discipline i was hired it also has people working quietly for litigation and consulting and i am calling it the biggest breach of the integrity since the not see period undiagnosed black mark on modern scholarship. >> host: how strong is the
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tobacco lobby today? >> it is a liberal -- little weaker they still have a $12 billion advertising budget in united states but that distracted to all smokers through direct mail of hundreds of dollars per smoker with marketing and promotions because they have every smoker on a computer list but the influence in congress is weaker. be used to be the most powerful lobby in washington d.c.. the tobacco institute was a stone's throw you could stand on the roof of the tobacco lobby and hit the white house. that has been disbanded by the loss so they are no longer allowed to lobby and the same way with the same energy they use to. there were 10 senators that appeared in tobacco ads in
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the '20s and '30s. that has disappeared but they have an enormous political force. they are able to attack the plain packaging law in australia, the free trade bill used as an instrument to punish any renegade country that wants to come out strongly against tobacco. they have a tremendous war chest with a profit so high. if you put 10,000 the lot more stock in 1958 it is worth $50 million today. it is the most powerful company in the world $150 billion company philip morris international. it is very powerful their printing money because the cigarette paper wrapped in paper so you they use the war chest from litigation
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that is why we still smoke 6 trillion cigarettes which by the way 6 trillion cigarettes smoked every year is 350 billion miles of cigarettes and that is enough to make a continuous chain of cigarettes to the errors and the sun and back. and several round trips to mars. they are produced a 350 million miles per year faster than the rate of satellite's orbit the earth so pitcher a continuous cigarette smoked faster seeking get a sense of the scale of the problem. >> host: we're talking with professor robert proctor from stanford university. professor of history of science and here is his most recent book "golden holocaust" origins of the
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cigarette catastrophe and the case for abolition" >> now joining as a stanford university a more familiar name is the newest book this save your general's hall five great commanders say doors that were lost dr. hansen what you mean when you talk about this saved war? >> nothing is over and tell it is over fermenta
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essential societies with the leadership individually that it was a bad idea or we can win or it did not turn out like we thought yet people in peacetime are not necessarily spectacular but come out of the shadows the military versions of the liberty balance for saviors. they have a particular profile from history and muscat war differently to say it is not lost and we can win but they have a hard time convincing people to give them the opportunity because by definition the eccentric personality tends to alienate people they are not team players whether domestically for sherman or david petraeus. >> host: those are the three of the general's. >> one obscure man had the idea they could restore the entire mediterranean roman
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empire in six entry and also my favorite was ridgway 100 days increate he took seoul, south korea and got us back up to the 38 parallel but everybody wanted to evacuate >> host: did you have to narrow the list? where did you start? >> i had people as diverse as a spartan or richard the lionheart, all sorts of figures that i thought rather than try to be systematically chronological but the impressionistic'' i thought were the most interesting dynamic controversial to use that as a template and a conclusion to say there applicable to other people across time and space. >> host: you write most our students are even scholars to follow a the shadows but use a time in
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obscurity to view contemporary tactics of the ongoing losing war. >> matthew ridgway is on the cover of "time" magazine they called him iron tits with a grenade here in the medical back here but they did not realize he studied late at night the language and history and tactics of korea but look negative german wild uncle billy sherman was a magnificent student of history and understood the psychology of the southern plantation owner and when he said i will make war in ruins and ominous -- synonymous ideas it is a good examples of george patent -- george patton it is like malls to candles that they are serious students. david petraeus was part of the popular culture of 2007
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through 2008 but for 50 years he was a ph.d. and serious student of tactics and political science and get the popular persona was not the eight heads scholars of the adoptees personas that unnecessary sometimes proving us they shot the place up but they were not. they were waiting there all along. >> host: you say malls to a flame like publicity. >> even their career because they do for now what is odd is due themistocles committed suicide in dallas sorus ended up as a beggar in constantinople and matthew ridgway had a bad time after saving victory in war and sherman people were calling him a terrorist
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within one year i thought david petraeus did not fit the model because the galleys were set and all of a sudden the incident started to appear and it started to fit the profile. >> host: was general macarthur and general patent on this list to begin with? >> no. because everybody knows of macarthur and i have written the past but when you mention the nays -- the names of others didn't know who you're talking about and colin powell who died in 1993 nobody knew who he was. that you and the military over this man more than any other in nobody knows what
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had happened and he faded away. so i try to bring public attention to the collective attention span. >> host: that is a little taste of the newest book save your general's -- this save your general's. also go to but to be to hear a longer version of him in fresno talking about this book. you are watching the tv on c-span2.
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